Aboriginal and European Encounter in the Canberra Region:
a question of change and the archaeological record


Appendix 2

Table of Contents -  Introduction 
Chapter 1 -  Chapter 2 -  Chapter 3 -  Chapter 4 -  Chapter 5 
Bibliography -  Appendix 1 -  Appendix 2 -  Appendix 3 
List of Figures -  List of Tables -  Abbreviations -  Acknowledgments 


Oaks Estate (ACT).

NB: Sites recorded on ACT Government 1: 10 000 Planning Series Map no. 216-594.

Site OE1

Grid Reference: 220024 597095.
Site Type: Artefact Scatter.
Site Dimensions: 95cm x 1m.
No. Artefacts: 8 (7 historic and 1 stone artefact).
Location: On edge of a dirt road running adjacent to railway track and the ACT-NSW state border. The site is located approximately 100m from the Queanbeyan River on a low rise.
Archaeological Visibility: Less than 5%.
Comments: Artefacts eroding on edge of dirt road. The site is probably larger, but due to limited archaeological visibility unable to be confirmed.
Artefacts:
  1. base and part of a black bottle. Push-up on base of bottle has a circular depression in the centre characteristic to manufacture with a bare iron pontil. Such a feature is confined to bottles made between 1845 and 1870 (Boow 1989: 35). Base diameter 75mm and thickness of 31mm. Body of bottle 5mm in thickness (see Figure 8).
  2. fragment from base of a black bottle. Push-up on base of bottle roughened by small glass chips and particles of sand, characteristic to manufacture with a sand pontil. Such a feature is confined to common English wine bottles made between 1720 and 1870 (Boow 1991: 35). Fragment measures 61 x 50 x 8 mm (see Figure 8).
  3. clear glass fragment, 15 x 10 x 4mm.
  4. green glass fragment, 60 x 50 x 6mm.
  5. broken hand-made nail, 60 x 4 x 4mm.
  6. broken black chert blade, 31 x 12 x 4mm.
  7. white china fragment, 30 x 20 x 3mm
  8. white china fragment, 40 x 30 x 3mm.

Site OE2

Grid Reference: 220026 597018.
Site Type: Artefact Scatter.
Site Dimensions: 1m x 1.5m.
No. Artefacts: 12 (8 historic and 4 stone artefacts).
Location: On edge of a dirt road running adjacent to a railway line and the ACT-NSW state border. The site is located on a low rise approximately 65m northeast from site OE1 and 165m from Queanbeyan River.
Archaeological Visibility: Less than 5%
Comments: Site probably larger, but due to limited archaeological visibility unable to be confirmed. Similarities in bottle and ceramic material between site OE1 and site OE2 suggests they may be connected.
Artefacts:
  1. fragment of black bottle base. Push-up on base characteristic to manufacture with sand pontil. Fragment measures 30 x 25 x 9mm.
  2. white china fragment with black and pink willow design, 43 x 30 x 4mm.
  3. part of white china tea-cup handle, 30mm in length and 5mm in width.
  4. dark green bottle fragment, 40 x 23 x 6mm.
  5. black bottle fragment, 20 x 15 x 5mm.
  6. black chert flake, 25 x 30 x 4mm.
  7. white china fragment, 14 x 10 x 4mm.
  8. fragment of black bottle base. Probably part of the same bottle as artefact 1). Push-up characteristic of manufacture with a sand pontil. Fragment measures 40 x 35 x 9mm.
  9. grey volcanic river pebble, 155 x 123 x 70mm.
  10. grey volcanic river pebble, 200 x 110 x 87mm.
  11. grey volcanic river pebble, 170 x 140 x 82mm.
  12. broken black bottle base. Conical push-up probably formed with a wooden forming tool characteristic of bottles dating between 1820-1840 to 1860-1870 (Boow 1989: 114). Fragment measures 45 x 30 x 36mm.

Site OE3

Grid Reference: 220041 594033.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 1m x 1m.
No. Artefacts: 2.
Location: The site is located on a high rise in a paddock approximately 300m northeast of site OE2 and 160m from the Queanbeyan River.
Archaeological Visibility: Less than 5%
Comments: Site may be larger, though due to limited archaeological visibility unable to be confirmed.

Site RS1

Grid Reference: 219016 597095.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: The site is extensive, but due to restricted access to the site could not be fully recorded.
No. Artefacts: 9 artefacts recorded, though possibly 100 plus artefacts in site.
Location: The site is located on a high rise adjacent to the Molonglo River. The site begins on the Nimrod Road leading to the Queanbeyan Sewage Works. Artefacts were observed o a road running through the sewage works but were unable to be recorded. The artefact scatter also continues on to a dirt road leading to the Riverside Homestead. Stone artefacts were observed around the homestead though were unable to be examined.
Archaeological Visibility: 90% on dirt roads, 0% off exposures.
Comments: Although the site was unable to be fully recorded, negotiations to record the part of the site around the Riverside Homestead were in process at the time of writing.

'Ford Paddock', South Lanyon (ACT).

NB. Isolated finds plotted on map. Sites recorded on ACT Government 1: 10 000 Planning Series Map no. 200-576.

Site FPH1

Grid Reference: 26050 578060.
Site Type: Historic artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 42m x 12.7m
No. Artefacts: 12.
Location: Located on a high rise approximately 160m from the Murrumbidgee River and 20m from a small creek. Approximately 50m northwest from trig-point.
Archaeological Visibility: Less than 5%.
Comments: Site probably much larger, but archaeological visibility limited. Numerous small fragments of tin were scattered around the site but were not recorded.
Artefacts:
  1. broken neck of brown bottle. Single collar or Perry-Davis finish, characteristic of wine and beer bottles manufactured from the early 1900s to date (Boow 1989: 67). Fragment measures 33mm in length, 25mm diameter, and 3mm in thickness.
  2. part of a worn rubber shoe sole with nail holes around edge, 110 x 80 x 4mm.
  3. crushed tin can, 87mm diameter and 46mm width.
  4. brown bottle fragment, 24 x 20 x 3mm.
  5. green bottle fragment, 40 x 22 x 3mm.
  6. crushed tin can, 90mm diameter and 30mm width.
  7. sheet of corrugated iron, 750 x 490 x 3mm.
  8. broken watering can spout, 270mm length and 20mm diameter.
  9. brown bottle with broken neck. Thick rugged seam and a large push-up with no pontil mark. Length of 310mm and diameter of 75mm.
  10. crushed tin billy-can, 180mm diameter and 100mm width.
  11. brown spirit bottle. Embossed 'This Bottle is the property of the United Distilleries Pty Ltd'. Length of 260mm and 45mm.
  12. white ceramic fragment, probably belonging to an electricity insulator. Measures 60 x 40 x 4mm.

Aboriginal Reserve, Naas Valley (ACT).

NB. Sites recorded on ACT Government 1: 10 000 Planning Series Map no. 200-564.

Site H1

Grid Reference: 205115 208830.
Site Type: Raised earth platform.
Site Dimensions: 4.45m (north and south sides) x 8.80m (west and east sides).
Location: Located 100m west of the Naas River and 100m south from trig point.
Comments: A hut/homestead structure is recorded on a portion plan at the location in 1900 (Plan of Portion 141, County of Cowley, Parish of Cuppacumbalong, 1900). Local residents do not recall a homestead in the area suggesting it was demolished during the early twentieth century. There is evidence of a hearth on the northern side of the earth platform and may be connected with the granodiorite blocks (site H2). The dimensions of the earth platform fits Winston-Gregson's (1979: 55) description of a 'single residence', where the earliest in the Gudgenby region dates to 1838 and the most recent 1903.

Site H2

Grid Reference: 205200 208850.
Site Type: Pile of grandodiorite blocks.
Site Dimensions: 10m x 8m.
No. Artefacts: 7.
Location: 50m west of the Naas River and 105m southeast from trig point.
Comments: Blocks may have been used as hearth material and perhaps related to site H1.

Site H3

Grid Reference: 205220 208900
Site Type: Toilet-pit.
Site Dimensions: 450mm diameter.
Location: 30m west of the Naas River and 190m southeast from trig point.
Comments: Maybe connected with site H1 as suggested by their close proximity to one another.

Site H4

Grid Reference: 205220 208830.
Site Type: Toilet-pit.
Site Dimensions: 800mm diameter.
Location: 20m west of the Naas River and 140m southeast from trig point.
Comments: Maybe connected with site H1 as suggested by their close proximity to one another.

Site H5

Grid Reference: 205113 208850.
Site Type: Historic artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 5m x 5m.
No. Artefacts: 7.
Location: 100m west of the Naas River and 50m south from trig point. Located beneath a dead tree.
Archaeological Visibility: Less than 40%.
Comments: The site is probably connected to site H1 as suggested by their close proximity to one another. Some artefacts were embedded in the ground and therefore unable to be recorded.
Artefacts:
  1. copper spoon. head of spoon 70mm in length and 40mm in width. Arm of spoon 115mm in length and 5-20mm in width.
  2. light green bottle base and part of body. Seven flat sides and one rounded side. Diameter of 65mm and thickness of 5mm. No pontil mark or push-up. Embossed '....n's'. Probably belongs to a 'Champion's Vinegar' bottle as suggested by its shape and embossing on artefact 3) from the same bottle, manufactured between 1842 to 1862 and perhaps later (Boow 1989: 190).
  3. Light green bottle fragment belonging to the same bottle as artefact 2), embossed '...o...gar'. Fragment measures 80 x 60 x 5mm.
  4. part of a sewing machine tread-wheel. Consists of a 'stand' and 'tread' joined together by a bolt. On tread embossed '...R-194184...GIA....' (see Figure 10).
  5. crushed tin can, 60mm diameter and 20mm width.
  6. two large sheets of corrugated iron embedded in ground.
  7. bed-post embedded in ground.

Site AS1

Grid Reference: 204380 565390.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 30m x 5m
No Artefacts: 39
Location: On an exposure on a steep slope 10m from unnamed creek running from the Billy Ranges to the Naas River
Archaeological Visibility: 100% on exposure, 0% off.
Comments: Artefacts observed in-situ though were not recorded as not to disturb potential deposit.

Site AS2

Grid Reference: 204140 565150.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 1m x 5m.
No Artefacts: 7 (6 stone and 1 glass)
Location: The site is located on an exposure on a steep slope 2m from an unnamed creek running from the Billy Ranges to the Naas River.
Archaeological Visibility: 70% on exposure, 0% off.
Comments: Glass artefact found in site appears to be of recent manufacture.

Site AS3

Grid Reference: 204190 565270.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 2m x 10m.
No Artefacts: 4
Location: Exposure 5m from unnamed creek running fro Billy Ranges to the Naas River.
Archaeological Visibility: 100% on exposure, 05 off.
Comments: Artefacts observed in-situ but were not recorded as not to disturb potential deposit.

Site AS4

Grid Reference: 204600 565230.
Site Type: Stone artefact scatter.
Site Dimensions: 5m x 5m.
No Artefacts: 21 (5 stone and 16 glass)
Location: Near gate on top of rocky ridge leading into ranges. 250m to unnamed creek and 600m to the Naas River.
Archaeological Visibility: 60% on exposures, 10% off.
Comments: Glass in site appears to be of recent manufacture.